Academic Catalog


Foothill College Course Outline of Record

Foothill College Course Outline of Record
Heading Value
Units: 4
Hours: 40 lecture, 15 laboratory per quarter (55 total per quarter)
This course does not meet a full 12 weeks.
Prerequisite: R T 55C or current certification in Radiologic Technology or Radiation Therapy Technology.
Degree & Credit Status: Degree-Applicable Credit Course
Foothill GE: Non-GE
Transferable: CSU
Grade Type: Letter Grade Only
Repeatability: Not Repeatable

Student Learning Outcomes

  • Identify and describe various types of regulatory provisions and radiation safety measures associated with fluoroscopy.
  • Identify components and their functions of the x-ray image intensifier .


Principles of radiation protection and fluoroscopic equipment, application of special equipment, illumination and photometry, anatomy and physiology of the eye and relationship of internal organs. Intended for students in the Radiologic Technology Program; enrollment is limited to students accepted in the program.

Course Objectives

The student will be able to:
A. compare image quality factors associated with fluoroscopy with general radiography.
B. cite the regulatory provisions and radiation safety measures of fluoroscopic equipment.
C. identify components of ancillary fluoroscopic equipment.
D. identify components of a fluoroscopic image intensifier.
E. describe how fluoroscopic television systems operate.
F. recognize various image recording systems.
G. describe how new types of fluoroscopic special equipment function and safe application for each.
H. define and discuss the regulations and guidelines associated with mobile image intensified units.
I. describe anatomy and physiology of the eye.
J. recognize relationship of internal organs in cross-sectional anatomy mode.
K. identify and describe various ways of maintaining quality control in fluoroscopy.
L. describe illumination and photometry.

Course Content

A. Quality Factors of Fluoroscopy vs General Radiography (L-L)
1. x-ray beam attenuation including filtration, patient factors, grids, inverse square law
2. x-ray beam restrictors (collimation)
3. image geometry, including magnification, distortion, penumbra, motion
4. image clarity, including contrast
5. image quality
B. Regulatory Provisions and Radiation Safety, to include the following: (L-L)
1. installation of fluoroscopy equipment
2. primary protective barrier
3. secondary protective barriers
4. occupancy factor (T)
5. work load factor (W)
6. use factor (U)
7. mobile screens
8. bucky slot cover
9. protective curtains or drape
10. collimation
11. cumulative timer
12. autobrightness control
13. technical factors
14. excessive light
15. x-ray intensity
16. x-ray quality
17. protective clothing
18. lead glass goggles and glasses
19. isoexposure curves (different examinations - upright and horizontal table)
20. radiation dose for patient for various examinations
21. radiation exposure to operator and others
22. definitions pertaining to fluoroscopy equipment
C. Fluoroscopy Equipment, to include the following: (L-L)
1. construction of different types of units
2. operating technical factors
3. timing
4. filtration
5. x-ray beam restriction
6. safety factors
7. inverse square law
8. exposure control
9. statistical quality of fluoroscopic image
10. spotfilming device
D. X-Ray Image Intensifier, to include the following: (L-L)
1. components
2. types (design)
3. brightness gain
4. image quality
5. contrast
6. resolution
7. distortion
8. quantum mottle
9. viewing systems
E. Television, to include the following: (L-L)
1. closed circuit systems
2. video signal production (cameras)
3. video signal reproduction (monitor)
4. image quality
5. resolution
6. lag
7. brightness
F. Image Recording, to include the following: (L-L)
1. still cameras
2. cine cameras
3. videotape and recording
4. video disc and recording
5. cassette
G. Application and Special Equipment, with emphasis on the following:
1. remote control units
2. specialized procedures
3. emergency room procedures
4. spotfilming
5. cinefluorography
6. patient factors
H. Mobile Image Intensified Unit (C-Arm), to include: (L-L)
1. special requirements
2. source-to-skin distance
3. x-ray beam intensity
4. special applications
5. video disc applications
6. isoexposure curves for various examinations
I. Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye, with emphasis on: (Lec)
1. anatomy of the eye
2. optical system of the eye
3. receptor system
4. color vision
5. rod and cone sensitivity to different wavelength light
6. visual acuity
7. integration or recognition time
8. intensity discrimination
9. illumination and photometry
10. contrast perception
J. Fluoroscopic Localization Techniques and Radiologic Anatomy, to include: (L-L)
1. parallax method
2. right angle method
3. radiopaque method
4. gallbladder fluoroscopy and anatomy
5. terminal ileum fluoroscopy and anatomy
6. knee arthrography and anatomy
K. Quality Control, to include: (L-L)
1. minimum source-to-table top distance beam restriction system
2. resolution performance
3. low contrast performance
4. grid alignment
5. fluoroscopic exposure rate
6. fluoroscopic beam quality
7. automatic exposure control system
I. Illumination and Photometry, to include: (L-L)
1. candle power
2. foot-candle
3. lambert
4. lumen
5. visible screen spectrum
6. visible light
7. light measurement
8. brightness of fluoroscopic viewing
9. optics
10. vignetting
11. magnification
12. minification

Lab Content

A. Lab Objectives
1. demonstrate various methods of reducing dose to the patient during fluoroscopy (patient radiation protection).
2. illustrate ways how one can reduce exposure to self and personnel (operator protection).
3. image recording during the exposure of phantom.
4. identify and practice ways of maintaining quality control of fluoro equipment and practice equipment operation.

Special Facilities and/or Equipment

A. On or off campus energized x-ray laboratory
B. Ionization chamber
C. kV test tool
D. Phantoms
E. Focal spot test tool

Method(s) of Evaluation

Quizzes, midterm and final examination.

Method(s) of Instruction

Lecture, Discussion, Research, Laboratory Experiments.

Representative Text(s) and Other Materials

All materials will be provided by the instructor.


Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing, and Outside of Class Assignments

Students have three directed reading assignments on pediatric radiation protection in fluoroscopy and patient and operator protection during fluoroscopic examinations. Students write reflective papers and answer questions on these topics.



Radiological Technology