Academic Catalog


Foothill College Course Outline of Record

Foothill College Course Outline of Record
Heading Value
Units: 4
Hours: 4 lecture per week (48 total per quarter)
Advisory: Not open to students with credit in PHED 51.
Degree & Credit Status: Degree-Applicable Credit Course
Foothill GE: Area IV: Social & Behavioral Sciences
Transferable: CSU
Grade Type: Letter Grade (Request for Pass/No Pass)
Repeatability: Not Repeatable

Student Learning Outcomes

  • Students will demonstrate an ethical analysis of performance-enhancing substance use in sport
  • Demonstrated knowledge of presented performance-enhancing substances and their known efficacy in terms of enhancing sport performance


Current and historical issues, as well as general social, biochemical, pharmacological and behavioral information related to performance enhancing substances in sport and exercise. Areas to be addressed include, but are not limited to: theories of addiction, populations, social implications, anabolics, blood doping, diuretics, nutritional ergogenic aids, social and recreational drugs, stimulants, emerging science and technologies, and drug testing.

Course Objectives

The student will be able to:
A. Demonstrate a thorough knowledge base of performance enhancing substances and how they relate sport, exercise and contemporary society.
B. Understand and apply theories of addiction used to examine performance-enhancing substance use/abuse.
C. Analyze substance definitions, populations, substance use/abuse, and substance effects; physical, psychological and social.
D. Analyze and communicate critical thought regarding current social and behavioral issues relating to performance enhancing substances in sport and exercise and broader contexts.
E. Classify and differentiate drug types, symptoms, performance effects both short and long-term.
F. Distinguish and compare social populations and recreational drug use.
G. Examine and compare issues surrounding drug testing, state and federal laws and sport testing.

Course Content

A. Introduction and History of Performance Enhancing Drugs
1. Sport/Exercise History, Issues and Population Analysis
2. Why the Demand?
3. Ethics, Morality, Legality
4. Social Implications of Substance Use/Abuse
B. Theories of Addiction
1. Medical Model
2. Psychodynamic Model
3. Social Model
4. Moral Model
5. Bio-Psycho-Social Model
C. Anabolics
1. Definition, Issues, Use and Populations
2. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
3. Beta-2 Antagonists
4. Growth Horomone
5. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
6. Effects on Performance
7. Greater Societal Effects/Issues
D. Blood Doping
1. Definition, Use, Issues, Population and History
2. Erythropoietin
3. Effects on Performance
4. Social Implications/Issues
E. Diuretics
1. Definition, Use, Issues and Populations
2. Effects on Performance
3. Social Implications/Issues
F. Narcotic and Non-Narcotic Analgesics and Depressants
1. Definition, Use, Issues and Populations
2. Narcotic Analgesics
3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Corticosteroids
4. Hypnotics, Anxiolytics, and Neuroleptics
5. Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists
6. Effects on Performance
7. Social Implications/Issues
G. Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
1. Definition, Use, Issues and Populations
2. Macronutrients and Metabolic Intermediates
3. Creatine as an Ergogenic Supplement
4. Sodium Bicarbonate
5. Herbals
6. Effects on Performance
7. Social Implications/Issues
H. Social and Recreational Drugs
1. Definition, Use, Issues and Populations
2. Alcohol
3. Marijuana
4. Effects on Performance
5. Fact vs. Myth
6. Social Implications/Issues
I. Stimulants
1. Definition, Use, Issues and Populations
2. Amphetamines
3. Caffeine
4. Cocaine
5. Ephedrine
6. Effects on Performance
7. Social Implications/Issues
J. Drug Testing
1. Methodology and History
2. Legal Context
3. Issues and Populations
K. The Future of Performance Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise
1. Issues and Concerns
2. Supply and Demand--the Marketplace
3. Emerging Science and Technologies

Lab Content

Not applicable.

Special Facilities and/or Equipment

When taught as an online or hybrid class students will be required to have email and internet access.

Method(s) of Evaluation

A. Unit Quizzes
B. Mid-Term Exam
C. Final Exam
D. Academic Research Paper

Method(s) of Instruction

Lecture, discussion, cooperative learning exercises, self-paced, electronic discussions/chat, independent study, demonstration.

Representative Text(s) and Other Materials

King, Tony. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishing, 2014.


Types and/or Examples of Required Reading, Writing, and Outside of Class Assignments

A. Chapters from text

B. Supplemental articles

C. Reporting on empirical academic research

D. Reflections on how to change a substance-abusing culture

E. Synthesis of historical and social relevance to performance-enhancing drugs in sport and exercise



Physical Education